July 31, 2016

Scripture and Commentary, July 31-August 6


July 31

Job 31, Mt. 20:1-16
Job 32, Heb. 3

Commentary,

Hebrews 3

The Old Testament is filled with the works of great prophets. Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Samuel, were great men and great leaders, whose works have influenced the world for thousands of years. Yet none of them can compare to the work and influence of Moses. No other human being has left a stamp upon the mind and fabric of humanity that compares to that of Moses. No philosopher, no religious leader, no political leader or empire has had the global historical influence of Moses. Yet One has come among us who is far greater than Moses. This One is Christ Jesus, the Apostle and High Priest of our faith (1). He is greater than Moses as the builder is greater than the building (3). He is the builder of all things (4), and He is the builder of the Church, which is His house (6). Moses was a servant in His house (5), but Christ is the owner, the Son to whom the house belongs (6). Thus, the book of Hebrews emphasizes again the Divine identity of Christ. He is not just a prophet and not just a man. He is the One who sent the prophets. Moses was His servant. He created the world and all the people, and He is the owner as well as the creator of all things.

Verses 7-19 remind us to give unto Christ the honour and obedience that is His due. The verses remind us that those who disobeyed Moses suffered death in the wilderness. They were brought out of Egypt by the power of God, yet they did not enter into the Promised Land. Their unbelief sealed their fate forever, for they did not make it to the Heavenly Promised Land ay more than they made it to Canaan (38). Verse 14 is an important verse, for it tells us only those who continue in Christ to the end will be partakers of His eternal Kingdom in Heaven. This is a conclusion based on the illustration of those who died in the wilderness. They did not continue in faith in God, therefore, they did not enter Canaan. Those who appear to begin to follow Christ, but do not continue in Him to the end, will not make it to Heaven. Therefore, “Harden not your heart as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: when your fathers tempted me, and saw my works forty years” (8, 9). But exhort one another, and yourself, “lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin” (13). Make no mistake, sin is deceitful, and can convince you that you are in Christ even when you are far away from Him. Please abide in Him, steadfast to the end (14).

August 1

Job 33, Mt. 20:17-34
Job 34, Heb. 4

Commentary,

Hebrews 4

Hebrews 4:1-13 continues the theme begun in verse 7 of chapter 3, namely, love and obedience to Christ. This is a pattern of the book of Hebrews. Chapter 1 tells us Christ is the Son of God who is far greater than angels. Chapter 2 tells us that since He is greater than angels, He is more worthy of our love and obedience than they. Chapter 3: 1-6 tells us Christ is greater than Moses. This is followed by an exhortation to honour and obey Him more than Moses. Today’s reading is part of that exhortation.

Verses 1-6 use a word we don’t hear much anymore, “fear.” “Let us therefore fear.” And what does it tell us to fear? Coming short of entering into His rest. The Bible is using the experience of the Hebrew people who were freed from Egyptian slavery, yet did not make it into the Promised Land. We remember that they came to its borders, but failed to enter out of fear of the Canaanites. According to Hebrews, their fear was the sin of unbelief. They simply did not trust God enough to put their lives in His hand. Therefore, they died in the wilderness rather than obey God. The point being made is that many people will appear to start the journey of faith in Christ, but will not make it to Heaven because they will not really trust God with their lives and their souls. They will go astray. They will love the things of the world more than they love God. They will pursue the things of the world, to the exclusion of God, because they will not trust God to provide for them in this life. And if they cannot trust God with their lives, they cannot trust Him with their souls. Therefore, they will be lost. They will not make it to Heaven. These people may be very religious. They may keep the outward forms of the faith carefully. They may pray and worship and read the Bible, and give money, but their hearts belong to them, not God. You can see it in them that they are afraid to trust God. They are afraid to give up their pleasures and amusements to serve Him. They find their life’s meaning in toys and recreations rather than God, and when they face challenges in life, they turn to their amusements rather than God, to see them through. At one time they “tried Jesus.” At one time they started the journey of faith in Him. But at some point they stopped trusting Him. They couldn’t face the giants, so they entered not into the Promised Land, and if they do not return to God they will not enter Heaven.

Thus, verse 7 exhorts us to follow Christ “today.” He is not to be put off. The longer we wallow in sin the harder it becomes to get up and walk in faith. The longer we put our trust in money, or things, or amusements, the harder it gets to put our trust in God. The more we love these things, the more we fear losing them, and the less we trust God to be worth more to us than they are. What if God takes them away from us? What if I have to give up my Saturday night out, or my Sunday morning golf to go to Church? What means more to me, these things, or God? Today is the day to choose. In fact you will choose today. You are choosing now. Today, harden not your hearts as the Hebrews did in the wilderness. Do not turn away from God. Today trust Him with all your heart, and enter into His rest.

Verse 12 is often quoted but little understood. It means that the word of God sees into your soul and makes it plain whether you are following God or not. It cuts through your defenses and the make-believe world you create to insulate yourself from God. They are coverings of fig leaves, but to God your soul is naked, for He discerns your thoughts. He knows whether you are following Him or turning back away from Him.


The rabbi was a highly honoured man in the Jewish community. Known for learning and wisdom, he was often asked to settle disputes and give counsel on a wide range of issues. And his word was usually followed gladly. Yet beloved and respected as he was, the High Priest was much more so. He lived in palatial grandeur, oversaw the services of Jerusalem’s Temple, and was the spiritual leader and symbol of the entire Jewish religion and nation. The book of Hebrews has already told us Christ is greater than angels and Moses, now it tells us He is greater than the High Priest.

He is greater because He has passed into the heavens and because He is the Son of God. Yet He is also aware of our human trials because He experienced them Himself. He is touched by our infirmities and was in all points tried and tempted as we are, though without sin (4:15). Therefore He is merciful and welcoming to those who continue with Him, steadfast to the end (3:14). We may come to Him boldly, not arrogantly nor flippantly, but in reverence tempered with confidence in His grace, knowing that in Him we will find mercy, grace, and help (4:16).

August 2

Job 35, Mt, 21:1-22
Job 36, Heb. 5

Commentary,

Hebrews 5

Christ is greater than the human High Priest because He Himself is without sin, therefore, every aspect of His work is for His people, not Himself. The human High Priest had to offer sacrifices for his own sins, and to spend time in prayer and confession for himself (5:3), but Christ is without sin, and His ministry was given entirely for our sake.

Christ is greater than the High Priest because His Priestly Order is greater than the Human High Priest’s. He is of the Order of Melchisedec (5:10). We will see more about Melchisedec later. The point of today’ reading is that Melchisedec was the Priest of God long before the institution of the Temple, the sacrificial system, and the order of priests that conducted the services, including the High Priest.

Therefore, let us go on with Christ into mature faith. That means there must be more to our faith than simply repeating “Christ died for my sins, so I am saved.” We must move into fully trusting Christ with our lives and souls. We must move into finding in Him our life’s meaning, our joy, our pleasure, our hope, and our comfort. In other words, our belief that Christ died for our sins must transform and direct every other aspect of our life, else it is not real faith.

August 3

Job 37, Mt. 21:23-46
Job 38, Heb. 6

Commentary,

Hebrews 6

Hebrews 6 continues to warn us not to neglect the salvation purchased for us by God in Christ. The heart of this warning is terrible and frightening, for its message is that those who appear to begin to follow Christ in the life of faith, but stop following Him, will not become followers of Christ again. “It is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance” (Heb. 6:4-6).

I truly hope these verses cause you to fear. Most people don’t pay much attention to them because they immediately call up all their defensive tactics that tell them once saved always saved, and that such people were never saved in the first place. That is true, but that is not the point.  The point is, they believed they were saved, and they made a start at living the Christian life. But at some point and for some reason, they quit. They either found out that they really don’t believe, or they decided they aren’t really willing to live the Christian life. They were probably quite happy to believe Jesus died for their sins, be baptized, and do a few churchy things as long as it was convenient and easy for them, but when following Christ began to require trusting Him in difficult situations, or sacrificing personal goals and desires to live for Him, they simply quit. Such people will probably continue to convince themselves that they are Christians, but in reality, they are not. So the “moral of the story” is found in verse 12, “be not slothful, but followers of them, who through faith and patience inherit the promises.”

Abraham is an example of a person who inherited the promises through faith and patience (6:15). He patiently endured in the faith, though it was not always easy for him. He inherited the earthly Promised Land through his descendants.  Far more importantly, he inherited the Kingdom of Heaven as the promise of God. Canaan was but a symbol of the Heavenly Promised Land.

The promises of God are immutable. Verse 17 says the counsel of God is immutable, but the counsel of God includes His promises. We could interpret the verse as saying the word of God is immutable, meaning the word of God is His bond and He will not break it. His word is confirmed by an oath. God swears by Himself, making it evident that His word is indeed a promise. He binds Himself to keep His promise, that those who trust in Christ in Biblical faith, will inherit the promise, and those who do not trust in Him to the end, will not.

This promise is an anchor of hope in a sea of troubles (6:19). It gives us faith to continue on, steadfast to the end. It keeps us anchored in Christ, and Christ Himself is “within the veil” the Holy of Holies, which is the right hand of God in Heaven.

August 4

Job 39, Mt. 22:1-22
Job 40, Heb.7

Commentary,

Hebrews 7

Hebrews, chapter 6 closed with a quote from Psalm 110:4 and a reference to Genesis 14:18-20. Our reading in Hebrews 7 explains how Christ is a Priest of the order of Melchisidec. The identity of Melchisidec is a topic of much discussion among students of Scripture. He is noted as the King of Salem, which means King of Peace, and the inference in the book of Hebrews is that he is an appearance of Christ in the Old Testament. Thus, verse 2 calls Him the King of Righteousness to whom Abraham offered a tithe. He is also noted as being without parents and without descent. Christ is eternally God, so God the Father is not His parent in the same sense that our human fathers and mothers are ours. He has no “beginning of days nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually” (7:3).

Melchisidec is a greater priest than the Levitical priests of the Old Testament because they paid tithes to Him through Abraham (7:5). Note also that Melchisidec predates the Levitical priesthood (7:6) and that His office did not pass to another at His death. Finally, His priesthood brings His people to perfection, which the Levitical priesthood could never do.

The major point being made in Hebrews 7 is that the Old Testament priesthood was a temporary institution, while the priesthood of Christ is eternal. Just as the priests themselves were not permanent, but passed their office on to another at death, so their order of priesthood was also temporary, and would be passed on to another who will continue in it forever. Melchisidec is eternally a priest, Aaron was temporary.

The ministry of the order of Melchisidec supersedes the Old Testament priests’ ministry. Their ministry has ended, but the ministry of Christ continues. Even now He “ever liveth to make intercession” (7:25). His ministry surpasses theirs because He accomplished it with a single sacrifice, while theirs required daily sacrifices (7:27). His ministry surpasses theirs because He is able to save to the uttermost (7:25). His ministry accomplished our salvation, theirs symbolized it.

August 5

Job 41, Mt. 22:23-46
Job 42, Heb. 8

Commentary,

Hebrews 8

Chapter 8 begins to state the sum, or, conclusion, of what has been said in previous chapters, especially chapter 7. The sum is that the Old Testament office of priesthood ended when Christ, the Priest of the order of Melchisidec, appeared. Equally important, the Old Covenant ended when the New Covenant began (8:13). In future studies we will consider the nature of the relationship between the Old and New Covenants (Testaments). For now let us simply say that the Old Testament parts that have ended are those which foreshadowed the ministry of Christ. They have ended, but they are not dead. They continue in their fulfillment in Christ Jesus and in the New Israel, which is the New Testament Church. Thus, for example, we no longer call people clean or unclean because of the food they eat, for those in Christ are clean by virtue of His atoning death, and those outside of Christ are unclean in their souls, regardless of what they eat. Our spiritual cleanness in Christ fulfills the symbolic cleanness of foods in the Old Testament. So the Old Covenant is waxed old and vanishes away, not because it is useless, but because it is fulfilled in Christ. Both are important to us because both chronicle the history of Redemption.

Christ fulfilled the Old Testament priesthood and now resides at the right hand of the Heavenly Majesty (8:1). The Heavenly Majesty is God, and the meaning is that Christ has returned to the place of honour in the Divine glory of the Trinity. His true work was and is accomplished in the Heavenly Sanctuary, of which the Temple was a symbol, or shadow (8:2-5).

Christ, the substance of which the Old Testament was the shadow, has a more excellent ministry than the Old Testament priests because He is the mediator of a better covenant (8:6). The Covenant is the fulfillment of the Old Covenant. Verse 8 refers to Jeremiah 31:31, but the New Covenant is promised in other verses also. The New Covenant people will have the law of God in their hearts (8:10) and they will all know God (8:11). Verses 6-13 tell us much about the New Covenant, all building upon the truth stated in 7:25, that Christ’s Covenant and dying gift to His people is their complete salvation and restoration to God.


August 6

Proverbs 1:1-19, Mt. 23:1-24
Prov. 1:20-33  Heb. 9

Commentary,

Hebrews 9

Hebrews 9:1-5 describes the Tabernacle as God directed it to be built in the wilderness of Sinai. The plan of the Tabernacle was given directly to Moses, and was followed strictly in the Temple built by Solomon. The point of this passage is the temporary nature of the Tabernacle and its services. This is shown in verses 6 & 7, which tell of the repetitive nature of the services. The priests entered daily into the holy place, and the high priest entered annually into the Holy of Holies to conduct the services and worship of God. So, the temporary effects of the service illustrate the temporary nature of the entire system.

Verses 9 and 10 make another important point; access to the presence of God, symbolized by the Holy of Holies, is no longer prevented by a physical barrier. In Christ, the veil, which acted as a barrier to separate the Holy of Holies from the rest of the Sanctuary, is removed and access to God is open to anyone who will come to Him. Meat and drink offerings and washings (9:10 & 13) are now irrelevant to the real worship of God. Under the Old Covenant, they had their place and function, but the sacrifice of Christ alone can purify the heart and bring a person into the true Holy of Holies. Verse 14 makes an excellent point about the Old Testament sacrifices and services. They did what God wanted them to do, and they did it effectually. They made a person symbolically clean and allowed him to participate in the covenant community of Israel. If such small sacrifices could accomplish their purpose, then the surpassing value of the sacrifice of the Son of God is also able to accomplish its purpose, the complete forgiveness of our sins and the complete restoration of our souls to God. If this has been accomplished for us in Christ, we are free from the need for meat and drink offerings (dead works) to serve the Living God through faith in Christ (9:14).

Hebrews 9:1-14 brought us to understand the finality and full sufficiency of Christ’s sacrifice. His offering of Himself on the cross pays in full the price of our sins and restores us to God. The animal sacrifices and ceremonies of the Old Testament could never accomplish this, but God can and did in Christ. Thus we are free from the dead works of the ceremonial law. Attempts to continue or revive them are actually insults to Christ, which is why Galatians 1:6 says such people have left Christ for another gospel. Hebrews 9 continues to insist that the Old Covenant, was temporary, and has been fulfilled in the work of Christ and in calling together the New Israel (Church) in the New Covenant. The point of Hebrews 9:15-28 is that Christ did not come to continue the Old Covenant but to fulfill it as the mediator of the New Covenant.

This point is made, first, by comparing the Old Covenant to a will, which takes effect at the death of the person making the will. The point is that the promises of the Old Testament become the possession of God’s people at the death of the One making the will, God. Thus, when Christ died, the promises became ours. The Church no longer lives in anticipation of the promises, but in the reality of them.

The point is made, second, by showing that the people and Tabernacle of the Old Covenant were “purified” with the blood of animals, but the New Covenant and its Tabernacle, which is the true Tabernacle in Heaven, is purified with the blood of Christ Himself. The old Tabernacle was a pattern (copy) of the true Tabernacle (9:23), and Christ entered into the true Tabernacle and holy place with His own blood to bring us into God.

July 23, 2016

Scripture and Commentary, July 24-30

July 24

Job 18, Mt. 15:21-39
Job 19, 2 Tim. 3

Commentary,

2 Timothy 3

In the last days, Paul warns, people will be lovers of self, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God (1-4). This is a sad state of affairs, but it is not the timing that makes it so sad, for Paul's description fits people of all times and eras.  It is not even the wickedness that makes it so sad, though such wickedness breaks the heart of all who love God and love people.  The thing that makes this so sad is that it describes the Church, not the world.  It describes people who call themselves Christians, and have a form of godliness (5).  These people may be well schooled in the doctrines of the faith.  They may know the basic teachings of the Bible, and may even read the Bible regularly.  They may be regular attenders of public worship, but their hearts are not about God.  In their hearts they are as far away from God as the devil himself.
Paul says such people are like Jannes and Jambres who rebelled against Moses (8).  How are they like these Old Testament people?  In their resistance to the truth.  In their resistance to the Gospel.  In their idea that they can go on living in opposition to God while buying Him off with a few dollars and ceremonies.
Let none try to comfort himself with delusions that such people only exist in the Church right before the Lord's Return.  The "last days" are those days from Pentecost to the Return of Christ, and such people have been, and will continue in the Church throughout this era.  Paul's point is that we must not be those people.  Like Timothy, we know the doctrine and life of Paul (10-12).  Timothy knew them by knowing Paul personally; we know them through the pages of Scripture.  But knowing them is not enough.  It is "continuing" in them (14) that matters. The beautiful words of 2 Timothy 3:16-17, make no difference to a person unless he continues in the Bible's teachings.  To "continue" is to live in, to dwell in, to abide in the Bible in such a way that it shapes our thoughts and actions.  It molds us.  It changes who and what we are, right down to our very essence.
"Given by the inspiration of God" (16), means "God breathed," or from the mouth of God.  It is a picture of speech.  Our words come out in our breath.  So Paul is saying Scripture is the very word of God as truly as if it came out of His own mouth.  If this is so, how can we claim to love God, yet not continue in it?

If the Scriptures are the word of God, as though they came from the very mouth of God,  they are, then, the authority of faith and life.  2 Timothy 3:16 and 17 begin by telling us the Scriptures are the source of profitable doctrine, and end by telling us the Scriptures furnish God's people unto holy living, "good works."  "Profitable" implies first, that the Bible is the source of true knowledge of God, and true knowledge of how to love and serve Him.  It also implies that other sources of doctrine, instruction, and furnishing people for the task of knowing God and living life, are unprofitable.  They are defective, whether they come from the wisest of men, or our own inner thoughts.  Only the Bible is inspired by God.


July 25, Saint James

Mt.16, Acts 11:27-12:3
2 Tim 4, Mt. 20:20-28

Collect for the Day,

“Grant, O merciful God, that as thine holy Apostle, Saint James, leaving his father and all that he had, without delay was obedient unto the calling of Thy Son Jesus Christ, and followed Him; so we, forsaking all worldly and carnal affections, may be evermore ready to follow Thy Holy Commandments; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.”

James was one of three disciples who were closest to Christ during His earthly ministry.  He was known as a man of great wisdom and faith, and he was diligent about seeing that the doctrine and practice of the the Church conformed to that given to the Apostles from Christ.   The Collect refers to his leaving a lucrative fishing  business to follow Christ.  But James would soon give  much more in the service of Christ.  The murder of Stephen in Jerusalem began an intense persecution of the Church by the same Jewish religious leaders who had convinced Pilate to crucify Christ.  Most Christians rapidly left Jerusalem at this time, but the Apostles remained in the city, including James.

James was one of the most influential Apostles.  This made him particularly conspicuous to the Jewish opposition, and an obvious target of their attacks. In or around the year 44 A.D, his enemies succeeded in having him arrested and executed. He was the first Apostle to suffer martyrdom for his Saviour.

Commentary,

2 Timothy 4


Since the Bible is the Word of God, Timothy, and all clergy, are to "preach the word" (2).  Yes, there are some very wise people whose thoughts and lives have benefited humanity down through the ages.  But they were simply human, and their words and views are filled with human defects.  Their views of God and their directions for living a good life are flawed, including Timothy's.  This is why ministers are to preach the word, rather than their own views.  This is why ministers are to stay with the tried and true Biblical faith rather than blaze their own trails through the Bible.  The current demand for new ideas, practical sermons in place of "tired" and "boring" doctrines, and for creative and culturally informed worship are not new.  Timothy faced them in Ephesus in the first century A.D.  Paul faced them in Corinth. He writes to remind Timothy, and all who read this epistle, that those things cannot furnish the man of God.  The Word, the Bible, is God's appointed means to accomplish the things of 3:16 and 17.  Preach the word... reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine" (2).
When God commands ministers to preach the word, He also commands the Church to hear the word preached.  But verses 3 and 4 warn that some people will not endure sound doctrine.  They will want sermons that entertain them, and tell them how to get ahead in life, and feel good about themselves.  Paul says such people turn their ears from the truth, and turn them to fables (4).  Again, such a warning to preachers is also a warning to hearers not to be among those who reject the word for fables.  Ministers may not offer trivialities to God's people, even if the people demand them.  Ministers are to preach the word.
To watch is to be on guard.  Those who give themselves to fables and heap up teachers who preach what they want to hear rather than the Word of God, are like people who allow alcohol and drugs to cloud their judgment, making themselves easy prey for those who would rob and harm them.  By contrast, God's true ministers are to be sober and on guard.  They are to do only that which furnishes God's people for Godliness.  Paul is especially concerned about this because he knows his time on earth is short.  "The time of my departure is at hand" (6-8).  He is not afraid.  He looks forward to Heaven.  But he wants to do his best to ensure that those coming after him in the Church know the truth, and have every opportunity to live according to it.
The charge to Timothy is ended.  What remains in the epistle are personal remarks.  Yet, even they say much to those who have ears to hear.  Demas, for example, was a close friend and fellow labourer with Paul in Colossians 4:14.  But in 2 Tim. 4:9 he has deserted Paul.  What has caused his defection, which is not only from Paul, but also from Christ Himself?  He "loved this present world."  He loved his life and was unwilling to risk it by helping Paul in his imprisonment.  Our Lord said the greatest and most important commandment of all is to love God with all your heart, soul, and mind.  But Demas, after years of seemingly following Christ, has now decided he loves himself more than Christ.
Many have followed Demas' path.  Appearing to faithfully serve Christ, they really only follow as long as He allows them to have their own way.  The moment following Christ begins to require them to get out of their comfort zone, and to do a little giving instead of taking, they run away.
Crescens and Titus have been sent to Galatia and Dalmatia by Paul, and Tychicus has been sent to Ephesus, probably carrying the letter of 2 Timothy with him (12).  Unlike Demas they have not deserted Paul or Christ; they continue to serve.  Timothy also remains true, and will want to come to Paul, though being in Rome at this time will endanger his life.  With autumn and winter approaching, Paul wants his coat.  He also wants his books and papers (13).
Verses 14 and 15 are about Alexander, probably one of the Ephesian craftsmen who persecuted Paul.  Timothy is to beware of him. The "first answer" (16) may refer to a hearing after which Paul was put into the Mammertine prison.  He faced that alone.  This man, who gave so much of himself, who suffered so much to take the Gospel to people, had to face the Roman authorities alone.  The sadness of this is palpable.
The Lord delivered Paul from the lion's den for a while, that he might be allowed to continue to preach the Gospel, even if from prison (17).  But, Paul knows the time of his death is near, and trusts Christ to "preserve" (save and deliver) him "unto His heavenly kingdom" (18).
Paul closes with a few words to those who have worked and prayed and suffered with him in the service of Christ. "The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit" is a prayer for Timothy himself.  "Grace be with you" is for all the people, and clergy of Ephesus.  Neither Timothy nor the Ephesians ever saw Paul again in this life.

July 26

Job 20, Mt. 17
Job 21, Titus 1

Commentary,

Titus 1

Bible readers often notice the similarities between the books of Titus and First Timothy.  The letters are so similar, some commentators believe they may have been written on the same day. The similarities are due to the fact that both letters were written by Paul to help Titus and Timothy oversee the churches of Crete and Ephesus, respectively.

The founding of the Church in Crete began when Paul landed on the Island on his way to appeal to Caesar in Rome (Acts 27:7-9).  The Apostle naturally spoke to the people of Crete, and may have held Bible studies and teaching sessions there.  Surely he invited people to worship with him on the Lord’s day, on which he preached the Gospel to them.  Some believe Paul wrote this  Epistle late in life.  Others believe it is written much earlier, from Rome during Paul’s house arrest, or from Macedonia, shortly after his release.  In either case, the Church in Crete has very little teaching and no qualified clergy.  Thus, Titus, who is traveling with Paul, is left in Crete to continue to teach the Christians, organise them into churches, and teach and ordain clergy (Titus 1:5).

Instead of ordaining deacons, as Timothy does in the more established churches of Ephesus, Titus ordains bishops to establish and oversee organised groups of churches.  Since Crete has no settled clergy, the bishops will make regular journeys to preach and teach in the churches assigned to them.  The qualifications for the office of the bishop (5-9) are stringent and inflexible.  These men are being called to a high office without having the benefit of years of learning, teaching, and leading a congregation.  It is imperative that they be of proven faith and virtue. They must be willing learners, and teach only what they are taught.  They are not to make up their own doctrines, or receive them from false teachers and wandering philosophers (10-14).



July 27

Job 22, Mt. 18:1-20
Job 23, Titus 2 & 3

Commentary,

Titus 2

We are accustomed to thinking of doctrine as ideas.  Thus, we speak of the doctrine of justification, or, the virgin birth of Christ.  Paul seems to have a broader view of it.  In chapter two he seems to include the normal doctrines of the Christian faith, and, the way that faith is lived by Christians in everyday life.  Thus, Titus is to teach Christian living, as well as Christian thinking.  It is hard to find a fuller, yet, more succinct, expression of  life-style Godliness than the second and third chapters of Titus.  They teach humble quietness rather than carousing, and an orientation toward the home and family rather than outside amusements and company.  The entire concept is well expressed as, “denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world; looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ” (12, 13).

Titus 3

Chapter three continues Paul’s short discourse on Godly living, and Titus can spend several years preaching and teaching on the faith and practice given here.  The Christian’s attitude toward false doctrine is an important part of the Christian life.  We are to keep our minds pure, which means we must avoid false teaching (9).  Don’t be drawn into conversations and debates about false doctrine with people who will not listen.  Reject heretics after one or two warnings (10).  This means Titus is to put such people out of the Church, signifying they are out of Christ.  In doing this, Titus is not condemning them, rather, they condemn themselves (11).

July 28

Job 24 & 25, Mt. 18:21-35
Job 26, Philemon

Commentary,

Philemon
This short letter from Paul is addressed to Philemon, Apphia, Archippus, and the “church in thy house.”  Philemon is easy to identify.  He is the man to whom Onesimus is enslaved.  Early Bible commentaries almost unanimously say Apphia is Philemon’s wife, and Archippus is their son, who serves as the pastor of the church that meets in their home (Col 4:17).  Philemon lives in Colosse, and is noted as a dearly beloved, fellowlabourer with Paul (1).

The church in their house is probably one of several small congregations in Colosse.  Each church worships in the homes of its members and has its own pastor.  Epaphras serves as their bishop (Col 4:12).  Collectively, they make up the Church of Colosse.

Paul gives thanks for the news, given by Onesimus, that the church in the house of Philemon and Apphia continues in love and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ (5).  It has not departed from the faith, nor followed the false apostles and teachers who deceive so many in Paul’s time, and ours.  He further gives thanks that the “saints,” or fellow Christians (6,7) are refreshed by the labours of Philemon.  Offering his house as a place of worship is probably only one of many things Philemon and Apphia do to help the church and care for God’s people.  They have done one thing without knowing it; their servant, Onesimus has become very useful to Paul.

As a runaway slave, Onesimus is in great danger, but manages to get to Paul in Rome, where he is converted to Christ, and becomes a help to the Apostle.  He may have skills in cooking or other household duties, which make him invaluable to Paul in his house arrest (11, 13).  He may also aid Paul in receiving guests and sharing the Gospel of Christ.  Surely his time with Paul would include much learning, and sharing his new knowledge of the Gospel.  He is so helpful, Paul would like to keep him in Rome (13), but cannot do so without Philemon’s permission.
Onesimus becomes convinced he must return to Colosse and make things right with Philemon.   He does so, taking the letter we know as the New Testament book of  Philemon. In this letter, Paul exhorts Philemon to receive Onesimus as a Christian brother (16).  Paul never exhorts people to violence or revolution to accomplish social change.  He understands that such measures rarely do more than replace one oppressive class with another.  Instead, Paul’s hope is that the Kingdom of God will come in its full glory, and establish true justice and peace, forever.  Meanwhile, the Church lives in the foretaste of that Era. In the Church, the barriers which divide the classes of people in the world, disappear (Gal. 3:28), and the law of Christian love prevails.  It is only the transformation of human nature that enables this, and without such a transformation, real social change is impossible.  Paul asks Philemon to receive Onesimus as he would receive Paul (17).  This is a complete transformation of the relationship.

Many have raised the question, is Onesimus still a slave, or is he freed by Philemon.  We do not know.  He may remain with Philemon.  If so he willingly works to earn his bread and board, and to be profitable to Philemon.  But, as brothers in Christ, the relationship will be one of mutual forbearance and consideration.  Both, Philemon and Onesimus will give and receive what is due them.  Mutual respect, a fair day’s work for fair compensation, and comfortable working and housing conditions will be guaranteed between them.

Paul asks that a room be prepared for him (22), for he expects to be released from Rome, and will visit Colosse when that happens.  Paul does receive a release from this first Roman imprisonment.  He will travel into western and northern Europe with the Gospel.  Some historians believe he goes as far as Spain and Britannia.  He closes his letter with greetings from others, and with a wonderful prayer: “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.” 

July 29

Job 27, Mt. 19:1-14
Job 28, Hebrews 1

Commentary,

Hebrews 1

Hebrews has one resounding theme, the absolute supremacy of Christ. He is the Son of God, which is to say He is God, the Second Person of the Triune God who is One, yet Three. As the Son of God He is God’s final and ultimate revelation. In times past God has spoken through the prophets. To them He gave visions and visitations and signs and wonders. But Jesus is the final Message of God. The prophets wrote of Him. The visions, signs, and wonders were given to guide Israel toward the fullness of time when Christ would appear and begin to bring all things together under Himself. Therefore, Christ is superior to visions and signs. They are actually superseded by Him. They are no longer needed. God spoke to us in His Son, who gave His word to the Apostles, who recorded it in the Bible. Thus, the Bible is our authority. We should not expect more visions or prophecies or signs or feelings. We should not expect God to speak to us through such measures. We have a much surer way of knowing God; He is revealed in the Bible. To seek to know the will of God apart from the Bible is to treat the Bible as insufficient, and that is the same as saying Christ is insufficient.

This Word of God, the Son of God is brightness of His glory and the image of His person (1:3). “Image” in the Greek is the word from which we derive our English word, “character.” It means Christ is not just an image of God the way a portrait or statue is an image of a person. Christ is the living expression of God. He is the “character” (nature) of God in a living, human form. Therefore, He is superior to angels. Angels are great and powerful beings. They are good, they are strong, and they dwell in the immediate presence of God. They serve Him and worship Him and do His will. Yet they are nothing in comparison to Christ. He is their Lord. He is their Creator and Master. He gives their powers to them. He gives their existence to them. He can take it away in less than an instant if He wants to.

If an angel were to appear to you at this very moment, you would probably be filled with fear. If the angel told you to do something, you would probably obey immediately. Yet One far greater than all the angels has appeared on earth, and bids you believe in Him and keep His commandments, therefore you should give your utmost to hearing and obeying His Word. This is the point of Hebrews 1, and it begins in the very first verse. The One who is greater than the angels is Christ Jesus, the character of God in human form. Christ is the heir and creator of all things, who purged our sins by His own blood, and now is seated again at the right hand of the Majesty On High (2). God has spoken to us in Him, a revelation that is complete and full and above every other communication from God. The other revelations looked forward to Him, and He is the completion of their story (1).
July 30

Job 29, Mt. 19:15- 29
Job 30, Heb. 2

Commentary,

Hebrews 2


People suffered for disobeying the word of God given through visions, prophets, and angels. This is seen in the numerous disasters suffered by Israel for their lack of obedience. If Israel was punished for disobedience to the word given through men and angels, God will surely punish those who disobey His word given through Christ Himself. If they who disobeyed angels did not escape, can anyone who disobeys the express image of God expect to escape? “How shall we escape, if we neglect so great a salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him” (3). Let us give “more earnest heed” to the things God has spoken in Christ, “lest at any time we should let them slip” (1).

God became a real, living human being. This theme begins in verse 9 and culminates in verse 16. Christ was made “lower than the angels” (9) and of the seed of Abraham (16). It is necessary to have this fact firmly in mind to understand the main point of this passage, because an angel could not accomplish what Christ accomplished for us. If an angel had become human and gone to the cross his death would be as unable to atone for our sins as the blood of bulls and goats. Why? Because God must bear the cost of our sins, just as we must bear the cost of sins against us if we are going to continue in relationship with other people. So God, somehow remained God, yet also became fully human and participated fully in the human condition even to the point of death. He allowed Himself no special privileges. He had to live by faith, He had to live by the power of the Spirit, and he had to obey the Scriptures just as we all have to do. “Wherefore in all things it behooved him to be made like unto his brethren” (17). But unlike us, He accomplished it all without sin.

Having made the point that Christ always was/is/will be nothing less than God who became flesh, we are now told why He did so, “that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people” (17). His full experience of the human condition allows Him to know by experience what we face in life. He was tempted. He knew physical weakness, hunger, weariness, and sickness. He was constrained by time and space. He suffered these things, and having experienced them, He is able to succour us (18). “Succour” summarises this whole passage, for it summarises the work of Christ. It means to have empathy and to feel our sorrows and needs. But it also means to apply healing and help to our wounds. Our wound is our sin and the wrath of God. He heals that wound by bearing it in Himself on the cross, reconciling us to God. But His work does not end there. It continues, as He calls His people unto Himself, builds up His Church, leads us into God by His Word and Spirit, and, finally, places us in His immediate presence in that land where sin and sorrow will never touch us again, forever.